1648 AND ALL THAT: The Scottish Invasions of England, 1648 and 1651
Selection of papers:
* Key Note Speaker and Foreword
* Colonel Francis Thornhagh and the Battle of Preston, 1648
* A Tale of Two Risings: Was the second civil war in England and Wales primarily pro-Royalist or anti-Parliamentarian?
* The Control of Command in the British Wars 1642-1651
* Three armies into one? Scottish Engager military organization in 1648
* Includes 9 b/w illustrations, 8 b/w photos, 7 maps, and 6 tables.
The resumption of conflict in Britain between 1648 and 1651 is frequently referred to as the Second and Third Civil Wars. The period marked not only a return to war, but to a bloodier, more violent conflict that had perhaps been seen before in the British Isles. Massacre, summary executions, wanton destruction, and assault on the civilian population were commonplace.
In early 1648, a political faction called the Engagers gained control of the Scottish Government and sent an army into England to support numerous pro-Royalist risings across the country. Poorly equipped, poorly trained, and with low morale, the Scottish Engager Army and its Royalist allies were no match for the New Model Army led by Cromwell. The two sides met at Preston in August 1648 and after an initial clash, the Scots finally surrendered at Warrington two days later.
Following the execution of Charles Ist in January 1649, the Scots supporting his son Charles II went to war against England, now a republic. A second invasion of England was launched, and the Scots found themselves cornered at Worcester by English forces, once again led by Oliver Cromwell. The battle, the last major action of the British Civil Wars, was fought on the 3rd September 1651, was described by Cromwell as a crowning mercy.
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Updated as of 12/07/2023ABBREVIATIONS: dj-dust jacket, biblio-bibliography, b/w-black and white, illust-illustrations, b/c-book club addition.
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